VGRIND(1) BSD General Commands Manual VGRIND(1)


vgrind — grind nice listings of programs


vgrind [] [−W] [−d file] [−f] [−h header] [−l language] [−n] [−sn] [−t] [−x] name ...


Vgrind formats the program sources which are arguments in a nice style using groff(1) Comments are placed in italics, keywords in bold face, and the name of the current function is listed down the margin of each page as it is encountered.

Vgrind runs in two basic modes, filter mode (see the −f option) or regular mode. In filter mode vgrind acts as a filter in a manner similar to tbl(1). The standard input is passed directly to the standard output except for lines bracketed by the groff-like macros:


starts processing


ends processing

These lines are formatted as described above. The output from this filter can be passed to groff(1) for output. There need be no particular ordering with eqn(1) or tbl(1).

In regular mode vgrind accepts input files, processes them, and passes them to groff(1) for output.

In both modes vgrind passes any lines beginning with a decimal point without conversion.

The options are:

forces input to be taken from standard input (default if −f is specified )


forces output to the (wide) Versatec printer rather than the (narrow) Varian

−d file

specifies an alternate language definitions file (default is /usr/share/groff/tmac/vgrindefs)


forces filter mode

−h header

specifies a particular header to put on every output page (default is the file name)


specifies the language to use. Currently known are C (−lc or the default), C++ (−lc++), CSH (−lcsh), EXPECT/TCL (−ltcl), ICON (−lI). PASCAL (−lp), LISP (−lisp), MODEL (−lm), MODULA2 (−lmod2), RATFOR (−lr), SHELL (−lsh), and YACC (−lyacc),


forces no keyword bolding


specifies a point size to use on output (exactly the same as the argument of a .ps)


similar to the same option in groff(1) causing formatted text to go to the standard output.


outputs the index file in a ’’pretty’’ format. The index file itself is produced whenever vgrind is run with a file called index in the current directory. The index of function definitions can then be run off by giving vgrind the −x option and the file index as argument.


file where source for index is created


macro package




language descriptions


groff(1) grops(1) vgrindefs(5)


Vfontedpr assumes that a certain programming style is followed:

For C − function names can be preceded on a line only by spaces, tabs, or an asterisk. The parenthesized arguments must also be on the same line.

For PASCAL − function names need to appear on the same line as the keywords function or procedure.

For MODEL − function names need to appear on the same line as the keywords is beginproc.

If these conventions are not followed, the indexing and marginal function name comment mechanisms will fail.

More generally, arbitrary formatting styles for programs mostly look bad. The use of spaces to align source code fails miserably; if you plan to vgrind your program you should use tabs. This is somewhat inevitable since the font used by vgrind is variable width.

The mechanism of ctags(1) in recognizing functions should be used here.

Filter mode does not work in documents using the −me or −ms macros. (So what use is it anyway?)


The vgrind command appeared in 3.0BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution April 23, 1991 4th Berkeley Distribution