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ICMP(4) BSD Kernel Interfaces Manual ICMP(4)

NAME

icmp — Internet Control Message Protocol

SYNOPSIS

#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>

int

socket(AF_INET, SOCK_RAW, proto);

DESCRIPTION

ICMP is the error and control message protocol used by IP and the Internet protocol family. It may be accessed through a ’’raw socket’’ for network monitoring and diagnostic functions. The proto parameter to the socket call to create an ICMP socket is obtained from getprotobyname(3). ICMP sockets are connectionless, and are normally used with the sendto(2) and recvfrom(2) calls, though the connect(2) call may also be used to fix the destination for future packets (in which case the read(2) or recv(2) and write(2) or send(2) system calls may be used).

Outgoing packets automatically have an IP header prepended to them (based on the destination address). Incoming packets are received with the IP header and options intact.

Types
ICMP messages are classified according to the type and code fields present in the ICMP header. The abbreviations for the types and codes may be used in rules in pf.conf(5). The following types are defined:

Num

Abbrev.

Description

0

echorep

Echo reply

3

unreach

Destination unreachable

4

squench

Packet loss, slow down

5

redir

Shorter route exists

6

althost

Alternate host address

8

echoreq

Echo request

9

routeradv

Router advertisement

10

routersol

Router solicitation

11

timex

Time exceeded

12

paramprob

Invalid IP header

13

timereq

Timestamp request

14

timerep

Timestamp reply

15

inforeq

Information request

16

inforep

Information reply

17

maskreq

Address mask request

18

maskrep

Address mask reply

30

trace

Traceroute

31

dataconv

Data conversion problem

32

mobredir

Mobile host redirection

33

ipv6-where

IPv6 where-are-you

34

ipv6-here

IPv6 i-am-here

35

mobregreq

Mobile registration request

36

mobregrep

Mobile registration reply

39

skip

SKIP

40

photuris

Photuris

The following codes are defined:

Num

Abbrev.

Type

Description

0

net-unr

unreach

Network unreachable

1

host-unr

unreach

Host unreachable

2

proto-unr

unreach

Protocol unreachable

3

port-unr

unreach

Port unreachable

4

needfrag

unreach

Fragmentation needed but DF bit set

5

srcfail

unreach

Source routing failed

6

net-unk

unreach

Network unknown

7

host-unk

unreach

Host unknown

8

isolate

unreach

Host isolated

9

net-prohib

unreach

Network administratively prohibited

10

host-prohib

unreach

Host administratively prohibited

11

net-tos

unreach

Invalid TOS for network

12

host-tos

unreach

Invalid TOS for host

13

filter-prohib

unreach

Prohibited access

14

host-preced

unreach

Precedence violation

15

cutoff-preced

unreach

Precedence cutoff

0

redir-net

redir

Shorter route for network

1

redir-host

redir

Shorter route for host

2

redir-tos-net

redir

Shorter route for TOS and network

3

redir-tos-host

redir

Shorter route for TOS and host

0

normal-adv

routeradv

Normal advertisement

16

common-adv

routeradv

Selective advertisement

0

transit

timex

Time exceeded in transit

1

reassemb

timex

Time exceeded in reassembly

0

badhead

paramprob

Invalid option pointer

1

optmiss

paramprob

Missing option

2

badlen

paramprob

Invalid length

1

unknown-ind

photuris

Unknown security index

2

auth-fail

photuris

Authentication failed

3

decrypt-fail

photuris

Decryption failed

MIB Variables
The ICMP protocol implements a number of variables in the net.inet.icmp branch of the sysctl(3) MIB.

maskrepl

(boolean) Enable/disable replies to ICMP Address Mask Request packets. Defaults to false.

maskfake

(unsigned integer) When maskrepl is set and this value is non-zero, it will be used instead of the real address mask when the system replies to an ICMP Address Mask Request packet. Defaults to 0.

icmplim

(integer) Bandwidth limit for ICMP replies in packets/second. If set to zero, no limiting will occur. Defaults to 200.

icmplim_output

(boolean) Enable/disable logging of ICMP replies bandwidth limiting. Defaults to true.

drop_redirect

(boolean) Enable/disable dropping of ICMP Redirect packets. Defaults to false.

log_redirect

(boolean) Enable/disable logging of ICMP Redirect packets. Defaults to false.

bmcastecho

(boolean) Enable/disable ICMP replies received via broadcast or multicast. Defaults to false.

reply_src

(str) An interface name used for the ICMP reply source in response to packets which are not directly addressed to us. By default continue with normal source selection.

reply_from_interface

(boolean) Use the IP address of the interface the packet came through in for responses to packets which are not directly addressed to us. If enabled, this rule is processed before all others. By default, continue with normal source selection. Enabling this option is particularly useful on routers because it makes external traceroutes show the actual path a packet has taken instead of the possibly different return path.

quotelen

(integer) Number of bytes from original packet to quote in ICMP reply. This number is internally enforced to be at least 8 bytes (per RFC792) and at most the maximal space left in the ICMP reply mbuf.

tstamprepl

(boolean) Enable/disable replies to ICMP Timestamp packets. Defaults to true.

ERRORS

A socket operation may fail with one of the following errors returned:

[EISCONN]

when trying to establish a connection on a socket which already has one, or when trying to send a datagram with the destination address specified and the socket is already connected;

[ENOTCONN]

when trying to send a datagram, but no destination address is specified, and the socket has not been connected;

[ENOBUFS]

when the system runs out of memory for an internal data structure;

[EADDRNOTAVAIL]

when an attempt is made to create a socket with a network address for which no network interface exists.

SEE ALSO

recv(2), send(2), inet(4), intro(4), ip(4), pf.conf(5)

HISTORY

The icmp protocol appeared in 4.3BSD.

BSD March 26, 2015 BSD

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