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DEVSTAT(3) BSD Library Functions Manual DEVSTAT(3)

NAME

devstat, devstat_getnumdevs, devstat_getgeneration, devstat_getversion, devstat_checkversion, devstat_getdevs, devstat_selectdevs, devstat_buildmatch, devstat_compute_statistics, devstat_compute_etime — device statistics utility library

LIBRARY

Device Statistics Library (libdevstat, −ldevstat)

SYNOPSIS

#include <devstat.h>

int

devstat_getnumdevs(kvm_t *kd);

long

devstat_getgeneration(kvm_t *kd);

int

devstat_getversion(kvm_t *kd);

int

devstat_checkversion(kvm_t *kd);

int

devstat_getdevs(kvm_t *kd, struct statinfo *stats);

int

devstat_selectdevs(struct device_selection **dev_select, int *num_selected, int *num_selections, long *select_generation, long current_generation, struct devstat *devices, int numdevs, struct devstat_match *matches, int num_matches, char **dev_selections, int num_dev_selections, devstat_select_mode select_mode, int maxshowdevs, int perf_select);

int

devstat_buildmatch(char *match_str, struct devstat_match **matches, int *num_matches);

int

devstat_compute_statistics(struct devstat *current, struct devstat *previous, long double etime, ...);

long double

devstat_compute_etime(struct bintime cur_time, struct bintime prev_time);

DESCRIPTION

The devstat library is a library of helper functions for dealing with the kernel devstat(9) interface, which is accessible to users via sysctl(3) and kvm(3). All functions that take a kvm_t * as first argument can be passed NULL instead of a kvm handle as this argument, which causes the data to be read via sysctl(3). Otherwise, it is read via kvm(3) using the supplied handle. devstat_checkversion() should be called with each kvm handle that is going to be used (or with NULL if sysctl(3) is going to be used).

devstat_getnumdevs() returns the number of devices registered with the devstat subsystem in the kernel.

devstat_getgeneration() returns the current generation of the devstat list of devices in the kernel.

devstat_getversion() returns the current kernel devstat version.

devstat_checkversion() checks the userland devstat version against the kernel devstat version. If the two are identical, it returns zero. Otherwise, it prints an appropriate error in devstat_errbuf and returns -1.

devstat_getdevs() fetches the current list of devices and statistics into the supplied statinfo structure. The statinfo structure can be found in <devstat.h>:

struct statinfo {

long cp_time[CPUSTATES];

long tk_nin;

long tk_nout;

struct devinfo *dinfo;

long double snap_time;

};

devstat_getdevs() expects the statinfo structure to be allocated, and it also expects the dinfo subelement to be allocated and zeroed prior to the first invocation of devstat_getdevs(). The dinfo subelement is used to store state between calls, and should not be modified after the first call to devstat_getdevs(). The dinfo subelement contains the following elements:

struct devinfo {

struct devstat

*devices;

u_int8_t

*mem_ptr;

long

generation;

int

numdevs;

};

The kern.devstat.all sysctl variable contains an array of devstat structures, but at the head of the array is the current devstat generation. The reason the generation is at the head of the buffer is so that userland software accessing the devstat statistics information can atomically get both the statistics information and the corresponding generation number. If client software were forced to get the generation number via a separate sysctl variable (which is available for convenience), the list of devices could change between the time the client gets the generation and the time the client gets the device list.

The mem_ptr subelement of the devinfo structure is a pointer to memory that is allocated, and resized if necessary, by devstat_getdevs(). The devices subelement of the devinfo structure is basically a pointer to the beginning of the array of devstat structures from the kern.devstat.all sysctl variable (or the corresponding values read via kvm(3)). The generation subelement of the devinfo structure contains the corresponding generation number. The numdevs subelement of the devinfo structure contains the current number of devices registered with the kernel devstat subsystem.

devstat_selectdevs() selects devices to display based upon a number of criteria:

specified devices

Specified devices are the first selection priority. These are generally devices specified by name by the user e.g. da0, da1, cd0.

match patterns

These are pattern matching expressions generated by devstat_buildmatch() from user input.

performance

If performance mode is enabled, devices will be sorted based on the bytes field in the device_selection structure passed in to devstat_selectdevs(). The bytes value currently must be maintained by the user. In the future, this may be done for him in a devstat library routine. If no devices have been selected by name or by pattern, the performance tracking code will select every device in the system, and sort them by performance. If devices have been selected by name or pattern, the performance tracking code will honor those selections and will only sort among the selected devices.

order in the devstat list

If the selection mode is set to DS_SELECT_ADD, and if there are still less than maxshowdevs devices selected, devstat_selectdevs() will automatically select up to maxshowdevs devices.

devstat_selectdevs() performs selections in four different modes:

DS_SELECT_ADD

In add mode, devstat_selectdevs() will select any unselected devices specified by name or matching pattern. It will also select more devices, in devstat list order, until the number of selected devices is equal to maxshowdevs or until all devices are selected.

DS_SELECT_ONLY

In only mode, devstat_selectdevs() will clear all current selections, and will only select devices specified by name or by matching pattern.

DS_SELECT_REMOVE

In remove mode, devstat_selectdevs() will remove devices specified by name or by matching pattern. It will not select any additional devices.

DS_SELECT_ADDONLY

In add only mode, devstat_selectdevs() will select any unselected devices specified by name or matching pattern. In this respect it is identical to add mode. It will not, however, select any devices other than those specified.

In all selection modes, devstat_selectdevs() will not select any more than maxshowdevs devices. One exception to this is when you are in ’’top’’ mode and no devices have been selected. In this case, devstat_selectdevs() will select every device in the system. Client programs must pay attention to selection order when deciding whether to pay attention to a particular device. This may be the wrong behavior, and probably requires additional thought.

devstat_selectdevs() handles allocation and resizing of the dev_select structure passed in by the client. devstat_selectdevs() uses the numdevs and current_generation fields to track the current devstat generation and number of devices. If num_selections is not the same as numdevs or if select_generation is not the same as current_generation, devstat_selectdevs() will resize the selection list as necessary, and re-initialize the selection array.

devstat_buildmatch() take a comma separated match string and compile it into a devstat_match structure that is understood by selectdevs(). Match strings have the following format:

device,type,if

devstat_buildmatch() takes care of allocating and reallocating the match list as necessary. Currently known match types include:

device type:
da

Direct Access devices

sa

Sequential Access devices

printer

Printers

proc

Processor devices

worm

Write Once Read Multiple devices

cd

CD devices

scanner

Scanner devices

optical

Optical Memory devices

changer

Medium Changer devices

comm

Communication devices

array

Storage Array devices

enclosure

Enclosure Services devices

floppy

Floppy devices

interface:
IDE

Integrated Drive Electronics devices

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface devices

other

Any other device interface

passthrough:
pass

Passthrough devices

devstat_compute_statistics() is an updated version of compute_stats() that provides more complete statistics calculation. There are four arguments for which values must be supplied: current, previous, etime, and the terminating argument for the varargs list, DSM_NONE. For most applications, the user will want to supply valid devstat structures for both current and previous. In some instances, for instance when calculating statistics since system boot, the user may pass in a NULL pointer for the previous argument. In that case, devstat_compute_statistics() will use the total stats in the current structure to calculate statistics over etime. For each statistic to be calculated, the user should supply the proper enumerated type (listed below), and a variable of the indicated type. All statistics are either integer values, for which a u_int64_t is used, or floating point, for which a long double is used. The statistics that may be calculated are:

DSM_NONE

type: N/A

This must be the last argument passed to devstat_compute_statistics(). It is an argument list terminator.

DSM_TOTAL_BYTES

type: u_int64_t *

The total number of bytes transferred between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_TOTAL_BYTES_READ
DSM_TOTAL_BYTES_WRITE
DSM_TOTAL_BYTES_FREE

type: u_int64_t *

The total number of bytes in transactions of the specified type between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS

type: u_int64_t *

The total number of transfers between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_OTHER
DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_READ
DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_WRITE
DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_FREE

type: u_int64_t *

The total number of transactions of the specified type between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS

type: u_int64_t *

The total number of blocks transferred between the acquisition of previous and current. This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device. If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.

DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_READ
DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_WRITE
DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_FREE

type: u_int64_t *

The total number of blocks of the specified type between the acquisition of previous and current. This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device. If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.

DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER

type: long double *

The average number of kilobytes per transfer between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER_READ
DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER_WRITE
DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER_FREE

type: long double *

The average number of kilobytes in the specified type transaction between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND

type: long double *

The average number of transfers per second between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_OTHER
DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_READ
DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_WRITE
DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_FREE

type: long double *

The average number of transactions of the specified type per second between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_MB_PER_SECOND

type: long double *

The average number of megabytes transferred per second between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_MB_PER_SECOND_READ
DSM_MB_PER_SECOND_WRITE
DSM_MB_PER_SECOND_FREE

type: long double *

The average number of megabytes per second in the specified type of transaction between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND

type: long double *

The average number of blocks transferred per second between the acquisition of previous and current. This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device. If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.

DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_READ
DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_WRITE
DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_FREE

type: long double *

The average number of blocks per second in the specificed type of transaction between the acquisition of previous and current. This number is in terms of the blocksize reported by the device. If no blocksize has been reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a default blocksize of 512 bytes will be used in the calculation.

DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION

type: long double *

The average duration of transactions between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_OTHER
DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_READ
DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_WRITE
DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_FREE

type: long double *

The average duration of transactions of the specified type between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_BUSY_PCT

type: long double *

The percentage of time the device had one or more transactions outstanding between the acquisition of previous and current.

DSM_QUEUE_LENGTH

type: u_int64_t *

The number of not yet completed transactions at the time when current was acquired.

DSM_SKIP

type: N/A

If you do not need a result from devstat_compute_statistics(), just put DSM_SKIP as first (type) parameter and NULL as second parameter. This can be useful in scenarios where the statistics to be calculated are determined at run time.

devstat_compute_etime() provides an easy way to find the difference in seconds between two bintime structures. This is most commonly used in conjunction with the time recorded by the devstat_getdevs() function (in struct statinfo) each time it fetches the current devstat list.

RETURN VALUES

devstat_getnumdevs(), devstat_getgeneration(), and devstat_getversion() return the indicated sysctl variable, or -1 if there is an error fetching the variable.

devstat_checkversion() returns 0 if the kernel and userland devstat versions match. If they do not match, it returns -1.

devstat_getdevs() and devstat_selectdevs() return -1 in case of an error, 0 if there is no error and 1 if the device list or selected devices have changed. A return value of 1 from devstat_getdevs() is usually a hint to re-run devstat_selectdevs() because the device list has changed.

devstat_buildmatch() returns -1 for error, and 0 if there is no error.

devstat_compute_etime() returns the computed elapsed time.

devstat_compute_statistics() returns -1 for error, and 0 for success.

If an error is returned from one of the devstat library functions, the reason for the error is generally printed in the global string devstat_errbuf which is DEVSTAT_ERRBUF_SIZE characters long.

SEE ALSO

systat(1), kvm(3), sysctl(3), iostat(8), rpc.rstatd(8), sysctl(8), vmstat(8), devstat(9)

HISTORY

The devstat statistics system first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0. The new interface (the functions prefixed with devstat_) first appeared in FreeBSD 5.0.

AUTHORS

Kenneth Merry <ken [AT] FreeBSD.org>

BUGS

There should probably be an interface to de-allocate memory allocated by devstat_getdevs(), devstat_selectdevs(), and devstat_buildmatch().

devstat_selectdevs() should probably not select more than maxshowdevs devices in ’’top’’ mode when no devices have been selected previously.

There should probably be functions to perform the statistics buffer swapping that goes on in most of the clients of this library.

The statinfo and devinfo structures should probably be cleaned up and thought out a little more.

BSD July 15, 2001 BSD

COMMENTS