Manpages

BUILTIN(1) BSD General Commands Manual BUILTIN(1)

NAME

builtin, alias, alloc, bg, bind, bindkey, break, breaksw, builtins, case, cd, chdir, command, complete, continue, default, dirs, do, done, echo, echotc, elif, else, end, endif, endsw, esac, eval, exec, exit, export, false, fc, fg, filetest, fi, for, foreach, getopts, glob, goto, hash, hashstat, history, hup, if, jobid, jobs, kill, limit, log, login, logout, ls-F, nice, nohup, notify, onintr, popd, printenv, pushd, pwd, read, readonly, rehash, repeat, sched, set, setenv, settc, setty, setvar, shift, source, stop, suspend, switch, telltc, test, then, time, trap, true, type, ulimit, umask, unalias, uncomplete, unhash, unlimit, unset, unsetenv, until, wait, where, which, while — shell builtin commands

SYNOPSIS

builtin [−options] [args ...]

DESCRIPTION

Shell builtin commands are commands that can be executed within the running shell’s process. Note that, in the case of csh(1) builtin commands, the command is executed in a subshell if it occurs as any component of a pipeline except the last.

If a command specified to the shell contains a slash ’’/’’, the shell will not execute a builtin command, even if the last component of the specified command matches the name of a builtin command. Thus, while specifying ’’echo’’ causes a builtin command to be executed under shells that support the builtin echo command, specifying ’’/bin/echo’’ or ’’./echo’’ does not.

While some builtin commands may exist in more than one shell, their operation may be different under each shell which supports them. Below is a table which lists shell builtin commands, the standard shells that support them and whether they exist as standalone utilities.

Only builtin commands for the csh(1) and sh(1) shells are listed here. Consult the appropriate manual page for details on the operation of any given builtin command under those shells. Users of other shells will need to consult the documentation supplied with the other shells.

Command

Externalcsh(1)sh(1)
alias
Yes Yes Yes
alloc
No Yes No
bg
Yes Yes Yes
bind
No No Yes
bindkey
No Yes No
break
No Yes Yes
breaksw
No Yes No
builtins
No Yes No
case
No Yes Yes
cd
Yes Yes Yes
chdir
No Yes Yes
command
Yes No Yes
complete
No Yes No
continue
No Yes Yes
default
No Yes No
dirs
No Yes No
do
No No Yes
done
No No Yes
echo
Yes Yes Yes
echotc
No Yes No
elif
No No Yes
else
No Yes Yes
end
No Yes No
endif
No Yes No
endsw
No Yes No
esac
No No Yes
eval
No Yes Yes
exec
No Yes Yes
exit
No Yes Yes
export
No No Yes
false
Yes No Yes
fc
Yes No Yes
fg
Yes Yes Yes
filetest
No Yes No
fi
No No Yes
for
No No Yes
foreach
No Yes No
getopts
Yes No Yes
glob
No Yes No
goto
No Yes No
hash
No No Yes
hashstat
No Yes No
history
No Yes No
hup
No Yes No
if
No Yes Yes
jobid
No No Yes
jobs
Yes Yes Yes
kill
Yes Yes No
limit
No Yes No
log
No Yes No
login
Yes Yes No
logout
No Yes No
ls-F
No Yes No
nice
Yes Yes No
nohup
Yes Yes No
notify
No Yes No
onintr
No Yes No
popd
No Yes No
printenv
Yes Yes No
pushd
No Yes No
pwd
Yes No Yes
read
Yes No Yes
readonly
No No Yes
rehash
No Yes No
repeat
No Yes No
sched
No Yes No
set
No Yes Yes
setenv
No Yes No
settc
No Yes No
setty
No Yes No
setvar
No No Yes
shift
No Yes Yes
source
No Yes No
stop
No Yes No
suspend
No Yes No
switch
No Yes No
telltc
No Yes No
test
Yes No Yes
then
No No Yes
time
Yes Yes No
trap
No No Yes
true
Yes No Yes
type
No No Yes
ulimit
No No Yes
umask
Yes Yes Yes
unalias
Yes Yes Yes
uncomplete
No Yes No
unhash
No Yes No
unlimit
No Yes No
unset
No Yes Yes
unsetenv
No Yes No
until
No No Yes
wait
Yes Yes Yes
where
No Yes No
which
Yes Yes No
while
No Yes Yes

SEE ALSO

csh(1), echo(1), false(1), kill(1), login(1), nice(1), nohup(1), printenv(1), pwd(1), sh(1), test(1), time(1), true(1), which(1)

HISTORY

The builtin manual page first appeared in FreeBSD 3.4.

AUTHORS

This manual page was written by Sheldon Hearn <sheldonh [AT] FreeBSD.org>.

BSD September 1, 1999 BSD

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